The BETKONEXT project consists of 5 work packages, all with their corresponding deliverables.

Work packages

  • WP1 will start from the “law in the books” perspective, looking at the interplay between the EU and the national dimensions. At this stage, the research deliverable (D1.2) will address four selected MS as case studies; they will be chosen for their relevance and specific features, as well as for their social and economic differences to better illustrate the complexity of the current scenario of the EU MS. The States are as follows: Italy (as the country where the beneficiary university and main institutional partner are located – and because of the size of the resources received from NGEU), Belgium (as the country where the EU institutions are located), Poland (outside the EPPO system and involved in the new rule of law-financial conditionality proceedings), and Spain (among the countries, together with Italy and Poland, to receive the most – ‘traditional’ and ‘new’ – EU funds). As for this first research stage, BETKONEXT will update and examine in greater depth the objectives and the results of the analysis of the ‘state of the art’ carried out in the BETKOSOL project regarding the protection of the EU’s financial interests. On one hand, we will examine in comparative terms the future of the national anti-fraud contact points network from an administrative and national perspective. Specifically, we will consider the different national models for appointing and functioning of AFCOS, analysing new structures and methods of cooperation between national and European authorities in this field, such as through new or updated digital platforms (i.e., for the RRF). On the other hand, in addition to the traditional tools of cooperation in administrative affairs, the EU system now provides for a European Public Prosecutor’s Office to protect the EU’s financial interests; their work raises several questions to be addressed in the light of the concrete experience of the EPPO so far. The focus will be on cooperation, i) between the various EU bodies involved in the protection of the EU resources (EPPO, OLAF, EUROJUST, EUROPOL), also trying to understand if there is still room for improvement since the EPPO became operational; and ii) between the EU authorities and national actors involved in the administrative and criminal law systems connected with the protection of the EU’s financial interests in the selected MS.
  • WP2 producing a second research deliverable (D.2.2), will move towards the “procedural viewpoint”, where BETKONEXT will try to identify potentials and pitfalls of the legislative tools in place to ensure cooperation for the protection of EU financial interests, again at both EU level and between EU authorities and national actors. The European legal system is shifting from relying solely on cooperation and specific instruments and institutions in administrative affairs to establishing a European prosecutor’s office to protect the financial interests of the EU. In this case, administrative enforcement (monitoring) is the necessary background for studying European integration (from the financial interest point of view) and the European Criminal Justice system’s new frontiers. We will investigate the administrative perspective of the “Premier acte de constat administratif ou judiciaire (PACA) system” for administrative irregularities, focusing on the role of new digital platforms (like those under the RRF), models of controls based on risk assessments for fraud prevention, and ensuring fair financial management, financial reporting, and preventing corruption. On the criminal law side, BETKONEXT will i) analyse the full implementation of the PIF directive, to understand which are the most recurrent conformity issues in the selected MS, ii) try to establish how the implementation of the PIF directive is interacting with – and how the above mentioned conformity issues might jeopardize the efficiency of – the EPPO’s operations and with a special focus on OLAF’s work, trying also to make an assessment of the efficiency of OLAF regulation in this respect, iii) explore related open questions and possible normative solutions, e.g., discussing whether harmonization through directives is sufficient in this field of criminal law (analysing also, in this respect, strengths and pitfalls of the recent proposal for a EU directive on combating corruption and amending the PIF Directive).
  • WP3 will be entirely devoted to the in-depth study of significant and/or recent fraudulent schemes (D.3.2), selecting case-studies (at least three for each MS) with the support of institutions, affecting the EU’s financial interest and regulatory innovation: i.e. (i) fraud related to the green economy, (ii) digital fraud, (iii) the incidence of irregularities/fraud in view of the own resources system (revenue aspect) and the implementation of the RRF (expenditure aspect), and iv) money laundering with specific regard to links with EU fraud. The case studies will be selected by the BETKONEXT research team, i.e., by the relevant national sections IT, BE, SP, PO, based on the analysis and studies carried out in WP1 and WP2 and the events provided by the draft agenda.
  • WP4 will be dedicated to the dissemination and re-working of previous materials, showcasing the input obtained through workshops and seminars with the institutions throughout the project (D1.1, D2.1, D3.1 and milestones 1, 2 and 3). The research consortium will include universities and technical bodies, such as AFCOS, from four countries: Italy, Belgium, Poland, and Spain. Our expected outputs include a set of recommendations for EU and selected MS institutions, a handbook of best practices, and strengthened networks among relevant actors in this field, including academia, institutions, and enforcement authorities (D4.2).
  • WP5 will serve as a transversal tool to ensure the correct and efficient management of the project, in liaison with LUISS administration.


WP 1 Towards Better Institutional Cooperation 

–  D1.1 (kick-off meeting)

– D1.2 (seminar Belgium)

–  D1.3 (Research Deliverable) Working Paper on Institutional Cooperation: Past, Present and Future

WP 2 The future of the EU’s financial interest through common or comparable rules and procedures 

– D2.1 (Workshop n. 1)

– D2.2 (seminar Poland)

– D2.3 (Research Deliverable) Working Paper on cooperation and integration thanks to common and comparable tools and procedures: critical issue and empirical evidence

WP3 New fraud schemes: cases and good practices 

– D3.1 (Workshop n. 2)

– D3.2 (seminar Spain)

– D3.3 (Research Deliverable) Working Papers on new fraud schemes: cases and good practice

WP4 Final outputs and Dissemination 

– D4.1 (Final conference)

– D4.2 (Research Deliverables)  Working Papers on a booklet of best practices

– D4.3 e D4.4 (Submission two Scientific Articles)

WP5 Project Management 


The BETKOSOL project consisted of 4 work packages, all with their corresponding deliverables.

Work packages

  • WP1 and WP2_State of the Art (deliverable No. 1 and 2)

The first two deliverables run in parallel, each with a general section and a part dedicated to case studies. The project will focus on the EU (D.2) and MS (D.1) legal frameworks for managing European funds and combatting irregularities and fraud through European, Constitutional, Administrative, and Criminal Law. Concerning the social, health care, and economic sectors, in particular, D.1 and D.2 will offer insights gleaned from three case studies: the SURE programme, RescEU,  and EIF-InvestEU. The MS selection (IT, BE, DE, PO) represents various regional, administrative, and welfare systems. Analysis of the case studies will allow the team to understand what effect the COVID-19 crisis may have on the current legal framework. This study unites a doctrinal and empirical approach, and this use of mixed methods reflects one of the principal ambitions of this research, namely to contribute to finding solutions that can prevent and combat fraud affecting the financial interests of the EU.

  • WP3_empirical research (deliverable No. 3, 4 and 5)
  • WP 4_recommendations (deliverable No. 6, 7, 8 and 9)